Different Outdoor Sports For Disabled Individuals

Anything is possible is a famous quote that we have heard almost anywhere. This quote is being told to those people who have lost faith in believing that they can do impossible things and that they can also do things what others can also do. It is an inspiring quote and it should be instilled in the minds of all the people so they will strive hard and never stop in believing that they can.

The quote really inspires the disabled individuals. You see, they are so very determined in doing things that other people can do. When we see disabled individuals, we feel pity because of their state. There is no reason to pity them but instead, we should help them and encourage them to do what they want to do. Did it ever occur to your mind that those who use wheelchairs, those you have crutches, those with only one foot or one arm cannot do anything to amuse themselves? That is where you are wrong. There are many disabled individuals as of this point that has become successful especially in the field of sports.

There are plenty of outdoor sports that disabled individuals could actively participate in. Horse riding, fishing, cycling, water sports like swimming and scuba diving are sports where they can engage in. One can already engage in such activities because there are also gears that are developed just for them to use. A wide range of adaptive equipments can now be purchased for those with disabilities. It is important for them to be supervised with someone though and make sure that they have one of the best stun guns in the market so they can protect their disabled loved one from the intentions of others.

The above mentioned sports for individual with disabilities can be found in different countries. The disabled have their own group or organization where they could meet up and engage in different sports activities. In Arkansas, there are great spots where the disabled could enjoy recreational activities. Let us not deprive this from them because they too need the thrill, the fun and adventure that any outdoor sport could provide.

State parks in Arkansas offer a wide range of exciting outdoor sports to extreme adventures. Outdoor enthusiasts can enjoy the breathtaking scenery of Arkansas added with the diverse outdoor experiences they could have. If you are a beginner or a professional, you can find your spot here in Arkansas. Of course, disabled individuals are not left behind with their own spot as well for they too can benefit from the State park in Arkansas.

If one wants to try horseback riding, they can go to the scenic Ouachita Mountains. Horse riding for the disabled allows them to relax physically and mentally. This allows improved balance and posture for them. This helps in reducing muscle spasms since the muscles are relaxed as well. Aside from that, they can learn to be independent but if they find the whole sport difficult, they can always use the carriage driving.

When it comes to biking or cycling, they can always head to Ozark and Ouachita National Forest lands which is just adjacent to the state parks. This activity also promotes physical and mental well being. They can ride on their wheelchairs, biking or cycling side by side with another biker or they can do tandems. In tandems, blind individuals are partnered with a sighted partner so they can have a fun ride. For those who ride in wheelchairs, they can bring a self defense any type of taser stun guns for their protection as they engage in sports.

Lodging houses, campsites and cabins are also found here in Arkansas. The disabled will always have a spot for fun and adventure. And those who are not disabled can help in making things possible for them.

Rewriting Activities Motivated by Levels of Reading Comprehension

Nothing ever becomes real till it is experienced.
- John Keats

Writing instruction can occur prolifically when a reading passage is used as a catalyst. Before students in a writing class can start assimilating ideas for an organized written form, reading renders a significant role. At this stage, the learners are expected to accumulate additional language understanding including vocabularies which are to be employed when they are task to assimilate garnered knowledge. The process of acquiring both language and information through designed activities may take place before reading, during reading or after reading centering to the chosen passage. Within these varied activities, comprehension questions are formulated to synthesize understanding of the text.

This model concentrates on the formulation of reading comprehension questions such as literal, interpretative and evaluative which are going to aid students’ writing inputs out of an identified text. The questions formulated under these three types of understanding will be used as guides in rewriting paragraphs which are named as summarizing original ideas, interpretative writing, and passage evaluation writing.

The literal comprehension questions generate answers that are evidently expressed in the passage which likewise test the capability of the students to understand major vocabularies that are used in a given passage. This type of questions can similarly test the students on how to dissect the main idea, cite, classify, list, or point out factual information; sequence how details occur in the passage, describe similarities and differences, and outline ideas, among other skills in the literal level.

Moreover, interpretative comprehension questions produce answers as results of thorough reading and scrutinizing facts to establish the associations of implicit details. This type of questions will enable the students some skills such as to figure out abstract ideas represented by words, phrases or even sentences; create conclusions, define reason and result connections, figure out inner main ideas, and identify the central meaning incorporated in the text.

The third is critical level comprehension questions that lead readers to evaluate or critic details intensified by the knowledge acquired from literal and interpretative levels. Critical questions will task readers to weigh and consider if the ideas are facts or opinions, express agreement or disagreement, identify the purpose and style of the writer, analyze paragraph development and even techniques that are employed in the passage and other skills that imply critical abilities.
To be able to apply this perceived concept, here are some suggested practical stages.

Stage I. Choose a passage that is probable in catering intermediate, higher intermediate and advanced students’ understanding.

Stage II. Formulate and interweave questions from the three levels of comprehension according to how they occur in the text. Interweaving operationally means answer of one question triggers the occurrence of another question in sequence details. Group similar level of comprehension questions according to paragraphs.

Stage III. Process students” responses from comprehension level questions to establish logical sequencing of the passage’s contents. Provide clear responses to these questions.

Stage IV. Examine the original paragraphs, questions and answers from the types of comprehensions to be able to identify language focuses which are going to be manipulated within the three kinds of writing. Students should be conscious of the language’s points to be observed in every kind of composition. In here, summary writing along with interpretative writing covers, the present tense forms of verbs to be, infinitive phrases, conjunctions, subject- verb agreement, adjective- noun order, proper prepositions, past tense forms of verbs which include both to be and actions. For passage evaluation writing, it focuses more on subject verb-agreement, the past and present forms of verbs including to be.

Stage V. Assign the type of writing according to the levels of comprehension questions where rewriting original ideas, interpretative writing, and passage evaluation writing will be aided by literal, interpretative and evaluative questions, respectively. Emphasize that these guide questions and answers generate details for logical sequencing.

Stage VI. Unlock vocabularies by varied strategies such as realia, word association or relationship, contextual clues, hyponyms, translations, examples, visuals or explanations. Vocabulary enrichment deals with a word, collocations or phrases.

Stage VII. Assign the writing activity that best suits the levels of your learners. The paragraphs’ numbers should be based from the original number of the paragraphs. Embedded details will be based entirely from the questions.

Stage VIII. Apply the stages. To further illustrate this technique for outputs, the passage below will activate the process.

The passage
Autumn

1. Autumn is one of the four seasons that includes spring, summer and winter. Some people call autumn, “fall,” which refers to the leaves falling off the trees during this season. The falling of the leaves begins when the leaves change colors and go from being green, to burning red, golden yellow and vivid orange. Then as autumn continues, the leaves begin to rain from the tree branches signifying the end of the harvest time. Many people in Canada, the United States, Japan, China and Korea travel around their home countries during autumn just to watch the leaves change colors and fall off the trees because it is such a beautiful site of nature. In fact the tourist season of leaf watching is a popular time to go hiking, camping and enjoying being outside with nature since the temperatures are mild, as the heat of summer has past and the chill of winter has yet to come.

2. Autumn comes after summer but before winter, from the first day of September to the last day of November. However the months of autumn depend on what part of the world it is in relation to the equator. While it is autumn in September through November in the United States, Europe, as well as all the other countries in the Northern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere where Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Africa and Asia lie, autumn comes from March to May. At this time of year, the days start to get shorter as nights grow longer, giving people less daylight to enjoy.

3. The history of autumn began with the time of harvest for people who worked and depended on farming to survive. Autumn was even called “harvest” in the 1500s because this was when fruits and vegetables were ready to be picked and stored for the winter. People had to store foods so they would not starve when the winter came, as the cold weather would kill majority of plants. So, the season of autumn was an extremely important time of year. As society developed, people moved off the farms and into cities to work in factories, the term “harvest” was replaced with autumn, or fall.

The unlocked vocabularies

Paragraph 1-autumn (fall), fall off (dropping, descending) change (transform) begins (starts, commences) temperate (pleasant, moderate, mild) season ( period, time of the year) watch (see) signifying (indicating, telling) harvest time (gathering time) travel ( move, transfer, migrate) outside (outdoors) popular (common and being loved) temperatures ( hot, mild, cold), chill (cold) Paragraph 2 -depend (rely) equator (divides the earth into Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere) Northern Hemisphere (polar region) Southern Hemisphere (arctic) daylight (daytime) Paragraph 3 – history (past story), 1500s (16th century), survive (live), harvest (gather), stored ( stocked food supplies) starve, (go hungry) extremely (greatly) society (culture and people) developed ( industrialized, modernized) moved off ( go to other places)

The formulated questions by levels of comprehension and sample outputs

1. Literal comprehension questions for summary writing

Paragraph 1

What is one among the four seasons? What are the three other seasons? What happens to trees’ leaves during winter? When does falling off the leaves from trees begin? What does falling off the leaves signify? Who are the people that travel around their home countries during this season? Why do they travel? Aside from leaf watching, what are some popular outside activities during this season? Why are they popular?

Answers according to sequenced literal comprehension questions.

autumn; spring, summer and winter; leaves from trees fall off, when the leaves change colors and go from being green, to burning red, golden yellow and vivid orange; end of the harvest time; people of Canada, the United States, Japan, China and Korea; to watch leaves change colors and fall off the trees; hiking, camping and enjoying being outside with nature; the temperatures are mild, as the heat of summer has past and the chill of winter has yet to come

Paragraph 2

What comes after summer? What month of the year does autumn come? What does the month s of autumn depend on? What are the places from the Northern Hemisphere that experience autumn? What are these months? What are the places in the Southern Hemisphere that experience this season? What months are these? What happens during this time of year? What do these changes do to people?

Answers according to sequenced literal comprehension questions.

Autumn, September to the last day of November, the equator, the United States and Europe as well as other countries in the northern hemisphere; Australia, New Zealand and some parts of Africa and Asia; March to May, the days starts to get shorter and nights grow longer, give people less daylight to enjoy

Paragraph 3

When did the history of autumn begin? What was autumn called in the 1500s? Why was it called harvest? After harvest, what did people do? Why did they have to store foods? How important is autumn? What happened to society? Where did people move? Why did they move into cities? What happened to the term, “harvest”?

Answers according to sequenced literal comprehension questions.

time of harvest, harvest, because fruits and vegetables are ready to be picked and stored for winter, people stored foods, so that they will not starve when the winter came, extremely important, developed, people move to cities, to work in factories, fall or autumn.

A. Summary writing for literal level of comprehension.

Instructions: Review the discussed vocabularies then paraphrase them to state ideas found in the passage. Follow the sequenced answers of the literal comprehension questions to be able to summarize.

Sample output

1. The four seasons are spring summer, autumn and winter. It’s in autumn when leaves from trees fall off. The falling off the leaves starts when they transform colors. It further tells the end of plant gathering. Canadians, Americans, Japanese, Chinese and Koreans move around in their own countries to see leaves transform into beautiful colors as they descend. Leaf watching adds hiking and camping to enjoy outdoors with nature. These happenings are popular because autumn is usually temperate.

2. Autumn emerges at the end of summer. Autumn rely on the equator or earth’s division. The equator has two divisions. The first is the Northern Hemisphere that includes places that experience autumn from September towards the end of November. These are the United States and Europe as well as other countries. The second division is Southern Hemisphere which composes places such as Australia, New Zealand and some parts of some Africa and Asia that experience autumn from March to May. In autumn, days are shorter and nights become longer which lessen daytime pleasure.

3. The story of autumn started with time of food gathering. In the 16th century, autumn was known as harvest since fruits and vegetables are harvested. They stock food supplies to have enough food during winter. Autumn was greatly important but when places were industrialized, people transferred to the cities to find livelihood in factories which changed the word, harvest into fall or autumn.

2. Interpretative comprehension questions for Interpretative Writing

Paragraph 1

Why is autumn called fall? How does it take place? What do people in Canada, the USA, Japan China and Korea have in common in terms of leisure and the appreciation of life’s wonders? During this season of the year, what positive contribution does it do to tourism and why? How do people benefit from the change in temperature?

Answers according to sequenced interpretative comprehension questions.
leaves fall off from their branches and twigs, green leaves changed into different colors then fall slowly, to travel around and see how leaves descend beautifully to the ground, autumn attracts many people within the countries and from other nations who don’t have these natural event bringing them to varied outdoor activities such as leaf watching, hiking, and camping; allowing them to enjoy outdoor fun under a temperate condition

Paragraph 2

In a consecutive sequence of the four season, where does autumn fall? In the Northern Hemisphere, what part of the year does winter occur? (not the months). In the Southern Hemisphere? What part of the year does winter take place? (not the months ) How do the changes of time affect people during this season?

Answers according to sequenced interpretative comprehension questions.
third season of the year, begins towards the end of the calendar year, first quarter of the year, shortening daylight activities

Paragraph 3

What’s the connection between autumn and harvest to the lives of farmers? If majority of plants wither in winter, how does autumn play a relevant role in the lives of people? Is migration a factor for “harvest” to turn into fall or autumn? Why is migration a factor for this term to have been changed till today?

Answers according to sequenced interpretative comprehension questions.

during the olden times, autumn is the time when farmers who relied on farming for a living harvested and stored their food, in winter, plants as sources of food wither and autumn is the greatest time for them to harvest and keep supplies; yes, migration, because people moved to urban areas in order to work, the common practice of harvesting food in preparation for the coming season has disappeared

B. Interpretative writing for interpretative level of comprehension

Sample output

Instructions: Review the discussed vocabularies then interpret the passage by following the sequenced answers of the interpretative comprehension questions to write your composition.

1. Autumn is called, fall because leaves fall off from their branches and twigs. It takes place when the green leaves changed into different colors then fall slowly. It is common among people in Canada, the USA, Japan, China and Korea to travel around and see how leaves descend beautifully to the ground. In tourism, autumn attracts many people within the countries and from other nations who don’t have these natural event bringing them to varied outdoor activities such as leaf watching, hiking, and camping. The change in temperature benefit people by allowing them to enjoy outdoor fun under a temperate condition.

2. Autumn is the third season of the year when we start sequencing from spring. Autumn in the Northern Hemisphere begins towards the end of the calendar year while in the Southern Hemisphere, it commences during the first quarter of the year. The changes of time affect people by shortening daylight activities.

3. The connection of autumn in harvest is that during the olden times, autumn was the time when farmers who relied on farming for a living harvested and stored their food for the next season. In winter, plants as sources of food wither and autumn was the greatest time for them to harvest and keep supplies. Migration was the factor that caused word harvest to be changed into fall or autumn because people moved to urban areas in order to work. The common practice of harvesting food in preparation for the coming season disappeared.

3. Evaluative comprehension questions for passage evaluation writing.

Paragraph 1

Did the author use definition technique to talk about what autumn is? Prove your answer.

Did the writer present a vivid view of what happens in autumn? What were these statements?

Did the writer use an exemplification by examples to explain ideas? What were these? Were there statements of advantages for people mentioned during the time of the year? Justify your answer.

Answers according to sequenced evaluative comprehension questions.

The definition technique to talk about autumn of which he stated that autumn is one of the four temperate seasons that includes spring, summer and winter, exemplified by stating that autumn is also called fall referring to leaves fall off the trees, presented a clear view of what happens in autumn by natural events that takes place, the idea was exemplified by example, mentioned advantages when this season occurs such as leaf watching, hiking and camping as outdoor activities under a temperate condition.

Paragraph 2

How did the writer begin the paragraph? How did the author explain that autumn months occur depending on what part of the world it is in relation to equator? At the end of the paragraph, the writer mentioned autumn’s effects to time, was it explicitly expressed? Prove your answer.

Answers according to sequenced evaluative comprehension questions.

by explicitly stating the sequence of autumn among the four seasons, the author used the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere to classify and then by enumerating places where autumn occurs as well as indicating the time of the year when this occurs, explicitly expressed by giving a comparison of the length of day and night

Paragraph 3

How was this final paragraph developed in terms of contents? Was the whole passage written in difficult terminologies? Qualify your answer? Is this passage’s information a fact or opinion?
Do you observe the occurrence of this to the present day? Justify your answer.

Answers according to sequenced evaluative comprehension questions.

this final paragraph was developed by the introduction of its history, related to harvesting and storing, the importance of autumn to people who depend on farming, changed into fall or autumn, written in a way that readers can comprehend generally, mixture of vocabularies with varied levels of difficulties catering to intermediate and advanced levels; passage contents tells readers facts

C. Passage Evaluation Writing for Evaluative/critical level of comprehension

Sample output

Instructions: Review the discussed vocabularies then evaluate the passage by following the sequenced answers of the evaluative/critical comprehension questions to write your composition.

1. In this paragraph one, the author utilized definition technique to talk about autumn wherein he stated that autumn is one of the four seasons that include spring, summer and winter. Furthermore, he exemplified by stating that autumn is also called fall referring “to leaves fall off the trees.” The writer additionally presented a clear view of what happens in autumn by the natural events that take place. To quote, “the falling of the leaves begins when the leaves change colors and go from being green, to burning red, golden yellow and vivid orange.” “Then as autumn continues, the leaves begin to rain from the tree branches signifying the end of the harvest time.” To add, the idea was exemplified by example through citing people from Canada, the United States, Japan, China and Korea who love to watch the wonderful work of nature. At the end of this initial paragraph, he mentioned advantages when this season occurs such as the leaf watching, hiking and camping as outdoor activities under a specific season’s temperate condition.

2. The writer began this paragraph by explicitly stating the sequence of autumn among the four seasons. The author explained that autumn months occur by providing two divisions done by earth’s equator. To be able to explain this, the author articulated on the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere to countries with autumn. It also enumerated places where autumn occur as well indicating the time of the year when this happens. At the end of the paragraph, autumn ‘s effect to time was explicitly expressed by the provision of a comparison between the length of day and night.

3. This final paragraph was developed through the introduction of its history associated to farmers and how it is important to harvesting and storing foods in preparation for winter. It ended by mentioning that its name changed into fall or autumn due to people’s movement to find jobs in industrialized places which replace the usual rural practices during this time of the year. This passage was written in a way that readers can comprehend generally. It’s made out mixed vocabularies with varied levels of difficulties catering to intermediate and advanced learners. The whole passage’s contents reveal readers of facts. From the beginning, it mentions that this natural phenomenon is among the complete seasons occurring in some parts of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Similar to the three seasons, fall is one among the majestic works of nature which captures the eyes of any human being who appreciates what indeed is wonderful.

When applying these varied stages to your target learners, the comprehension questions play crucial roles in the instruction. The three levels of comprehension namely: literal, interpretative and evaluative/critical are incorporated in reading which aid beginners in understanding fully the ideas in the passage as well as support their organization of writing activities. There would be an increase of comprehension due to the fact that questions are specifically grouped accordingly to levels of difficulty. Furthermore, using the varied levels categorizes the difficulty of writing whereby writing the activities in three forms are to be generated depending on the levels of the students. For instance, a slow learner may focus on literal, the intermediate tackles on interpretative while the advanced learners deal with the evaluative and critical questions. Incorporation of this style may also realize the relevance of teaching writing where knowledge gathered are assimilated through the use of appropriate language to arrive at well-organized written outputs.